Experts from the development research center of th

2022-08-21
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Experts from the development research center of the State Council suggested that the full liberalization of the second child

the key institutional mechanisms that need to be focused on to improve social policies cannot be separated from technical problems

at present, social policies face many challenges in decision-making and implementation. To improve social policies, we should focus on solving some key institutional mechanisms, especially improving the operating mechanism, and paying attention to the technology selection and management in key fields. At present, we should adjust and improve the relationship between governments at different levels in the fields of social security and public services, improve public investment and management methods, ensure that the public, especially low - and middle-income groups, benefit, deepen the reform of public sectors, especially public institutions, mobilize civil and social forces to participate in the reform and development of the social field, accelerate the adjustment of policies in special fields that affect long-term development, and further promote the construction of a fair current market environment, Strengthen the macro guidance for the reform pilots in various fields and optimize the assessment mechanism

■ Ge Yanfeng Yu Dong Zhang Bingzi

the construction of social policies and the improvement of systems should not only clarify the reform and development direction of various fields and specific systems, but also promote the system reform in related fields, improve the operation mechanism, especially pay attention to the technology selection and management in key fields, and comprehensively improve the quality and efficiency of service and management. Considering the international experience and the challenges faced by China in the field of social policy decision-making and implementation, we believe that the following aspects deserve attention

-- adjust and improve the relationship between governments at different levels in the field of social security and public services

social security and public services are government. A very critical issue is that China has five levels of government. Over the years, the poor relationship between governments has had a great impact on social construction, and we must speed up the reform. The core issue is to adjust and improve the decision-making, investment, implementation and supervision of governments at different levels in social security and public services

first, strengthen the decision-making and planning of the central government. In the field of social security and public services, we must adhere to the direction of emphasizing equalization and institutional consistency. Therefore, we must further strengthen the overall planning of the central government. Due to the great differences in development levels between regions, local governments can be given some space in specific policies, but the general direction must be consistent

second, further clarify the implementation. According to the characteristics of different types of social security and public services, we should clarify which should be implemented by high-level governments, which should be implemented by local governments, especially grass-roots governments, and which should be jointly implemented by governments at different levels. Judging from the actual situation, the implementation of most social security and public services must mainly rely on local governments, especially at the county and municipal levels

third, define the input according to the implementation. In view of the unbalanced economic development between regions and the fact that a considerable number of services and management need to be implemented locally, it is necessary to further reform and improve the cost sharing mechanism, strengthen the general transfer payments from the central government and provincial governments to local governments, and equalize financial resources. On the basis of reform and practice in recent years, compulsory education and other fields can further explore the sharing mode of expenditure items

Fourth, strengthen the supervision of high-level governments on local social construction. Objectives and assessment standards should be more formulated by the central government, and the implementation of specific supervision and assessment should mainly rely on provincial governments. At the same time, we should give further play to the supervision role of service objects and the public

-- improve public investment and management methods, clarify product attributes and cost sharing mechanisms, and ensure that the public, especially low - and middle-income groups, benefit

first, further clarify the scope and standards of public services, grasp the "degree" and promote the standardization of basic public services. The standardization construction should set not only the minimum standard, but also the highest standard, which is the basis for realizing the equalization of services. Considering the actual differences between regions, a certain space can be reserved, but not too large; In the region, the same standards should be applied to various services as far as possible

second, reform the way of investment, improve management, and improve the performance of public investment. We should not only steadily increase investment, but also improve the efficiency of public investment through system construction, and ensure that public investment is truly transformed into public welfare. We should reverse the tendency of emphasizing capital construction and ignoring daily operation investment, and establish a linkage mechanism between public investment and the adjustment of relevant service prices. At the same time, further strengthen the supervision of the use of public funds, standardize the capital process, promote openness and transparency, and strengthen performance evaluation; In terms of specific management, we should make full use of modern information means to improve management. At present, efforts should be made to solve the problem of information construction segmentation between different fields and regions to realize information sharing

third, further clarify product attributes and cost sharing mechanism. We should make full use of international experience, combine financial resources and the characteristics of different types of services, and adopt the methods of free, pricing below cost or charging according to cost respectively. For the most basic services involving most people, it is best to adopt the method of free or small amount of individual sharing (waste control). For services that need to be shared by individuals and families, full consideration should be given to the ability of individuals to pay, and corresponding reduction or subsidy policies should be established simultaneously to avoid reverse transfer. Transfer payments can be detected through tensile experiments to ensure the benefits of low - and middle-income groups

-- deepen the reform of the public sector, especially public institutions, and improve service performance

public departments, especially public institutions, are the undertakers of government public services. At the same time, it also inevitably has its own specific interest demands. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively summarize the experience and lessons in relevant fields, accelerate the reform, and improve the service quality and performance

first, further strengthen classification reform and management. There are many service fields, complex types and great differences in public institutions, so it is impossible to adopt a unified organization and management model. The recently released guidance of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on promoting the reform of public institutions by classification clearly puts forward the reform idea of organizing and managing public institutions by classification, and the direction is very correct. However, in the process of operation, we still need to consider the differences in different fields such as education, science, culture and health, as well as the differences in different types of services in the same field. Combined with international experience, we should further refine the classification of public institutions and choose differentiated management methods

second, further improve the incentive and restraint mechanism. On the one hand, we should improve the evaluation mechanism. The core of evaluation is the quality of public services and the improvement of national welfare. On this basis, employee compensation, welfare and other incentives should be more linked to the evaluation results. On the other hand, we should strengthen constraints. At present, the most critical thing is to reverse the practices of encouraging public institutions to generate income, self-determination of income generating income, and linking employee income with service income. While strengthening government investment and adjusting relevant compensation mechanisms, we should strictly control the disposal of assets and surplus distribution in the public sector

-- Based on system construction, actively and steadily mobilize civil and social forces to participate in the reform and development of the social field

in addition to actively cultivating social organizations in the field of social management, we should also actively and safely mobilize civil and social forces to participate in the provision of public services. As far as China is concerned, there is great potential for civil and social forces to participate in the development of social undertakings, which can form a useful supplement in the provision of public services

first, we should actively encourage civil society and social forces to participate in the provision of public services. In many areas of public services, private and social capital are willing and able to participate. They should be actively encouraged to form a diversified service pattern dominated by the government and participated by the society, meet the needs of different levels, and promote the mutual complement and mutual promotion between private and social forces and public institutions. At the same time, we must also consider the internal laws of different public service fields and reasonably determine the participation mode and degree of civil and social forces

second, we should clearly distinguish between profit-making and non-profit institutions and adopt differentiated management methods. From the perspective of international experience, civil society and social forces have different goals and ways to participate in the development of social undertakings, and differentiated policies must also be implemented in management. For profit-making institutions, they should be managed according to the enterprise model and pay taxes according to regulations. For non-profit institutions, we should adhere to the principle of both incentives and constraints. On the one hand, according to the principle of public welfare, we should give support in tax, land, commissioned services and other aspects; On the other hand, we should also control the asset disposal and residual distribution of non-profit institutions according to law. In addition, we should fully recognize the limitations of the participation of civil and social forces in the development of social undertakings. From the perspective of international experience, there is no precedent for civil society and social forces to become dominant in the provision of public services

-- accelerate the adjustment of policies in special areas that affect long-term development

first, adjust and improve the population and family planning policies as soon as possible. For more than 30 years, in response to excessive population pressure, China has implemented a strict family planning policy, and the fertility rate has declined rapidly. At present, scholars generally believe that China's fertility level is far lower than the official public machine of 1.8, which is just a change of method. Large cities such as Beijing and Shanghai have an ultra-low level of less than 1 according to the registered residence population. All aspects of data and information show that China's fertility level has been significantly lower than the replacement level of 2.1. At the same time, according to international experience, urbanization, industrialization and the improvement of education level will further aggravate this trend. The accelerated disappearance of the demographic dividend, the accelerated aging and the possible labor shortage in the future will become new major challenges. In view of this reality, it is suggested to adjust the family planning policy as soon as possible and consider fully liberalizing the second child. Otherwise, the later the more passive

second, comprehensively promote the reform of public service system related to registered residence. In the future, urbanization and population mobility will remain strong. In order to avoid the solidification of the dual structure in the city, it is of great significance to accelerate the reform of the public service system related to registered residence. In recent years, many reforms and explorations have been carried out in many fields, such as the compulsory education of migrant children, and many good experiences have been obtained. But on the whole, the problem is still very prominent, and reform needs to be accelerated. First, starting with the key issues of public concern such as the education of migrant children, especially non compulsory education, medical and health services, social security and affordable housing, we should study and introduce relevant reform plans as soon as possible; Second, we should fully consider the differences among megacities, large cities and small and medium-sized cities, and accelerate the reform from small and medium-sized cities; Third, we should simultaneously promote relevant institutional reforms, such as considering population mobility factors in fiscal transfer payments, straightening out interest relations, and improving the enthusiasm of local governments, especially those in the inflow areas, to provide equalization services for the floating population. In the development planning of various social undertakings, we should also give more consideration to the changes in demand brought about by urbanization and population mobility

-- further promote the construction of a fair market environment

there are many contradictions and problems in the current social field, including the lagging factors of social policy construction and social management reform, which are also closely related to the imperfect market environment and chaotic market order to a great extent. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the market environment and standardize the market order. During the "12th Five Year Plan" period, we should use more powerful means to crack down on illegal acts such as power and money trading, counterfeiting and shoddy, eliminate monopoly and various forms of unfair competition, and enable the same amount of factor input to obtain the same amount of income

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