Safety regulations and fire fighting knowledge for

2022-10-15
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Safety regulations for work at heights and common sense of fire prevention

safety regulations for work at heights

lifting machinery operators sometimes have to work at a certain height from the ground, such as driving and maintenance cranes, hooks, unhooking, bundling, hoisting, etc. There are unsafe factors in working at heights. Therefore, when working at heights, lifting operators should strictly abide by relevant rules and regulations to ensure the safe operation of lifting operations and avoid equipment and personal accidents

gb regulations: all operations carried out at a height 2m above the falling height reference plane (including 2m) where there is a possibility of falling are called operations at heights

the lifting operator shall make the impacted surface of 10 samples 1 so that the personnel shall strictly abide by the safety operation regulations for high place operation when carrying out high place operation. The safety operation procedures for work at heights are as follows:

1 All high-altitude operators, no matter where, at what time, or in what work, whether professional or temporary, shall implement the regulations

2. For high-altitude operations above class II (above 5m) and under chemical conditions, the construction scheme and detailed safety measures for high-altitude operations shall be formulated, and the safety measures for high-altitude operations must be filled in detail on the work permit

3. Climbing personnel must wear safety helmets and fasten safety belts; The safety belts and helmets used shall meet the requirements of GB standards and GB standards

4. Personnel working at heights must undergo physical examination and comply with the release of the first entity entrepreneurship platform in China. Personnel who are not suitable for working at heights, such as hypertension, heart disease, anemia, epilepsy, poor vision, hearing loss, and disabled hands and feet, are not allowed to work at heights

5. When working in high-temperature workshops, heatstroke prevention and cooling should be done well in summer to prevent heatstroke and fainting accidents. Those with poor conditions should take turns

6. Lifting appliances such as hangers and manual hoists for high-altitude operation must be erected in accordance with relevant regulations or provisions; Scaffolds used for high-altitude operations must meet the requirements of national building regulations. It is strictly forbidden to hoist and lift people on board

7. When working in a manned cage, check the pull rope of the cage in advance; Operators should fasten their safety belts, hang them on the upper pull rope, and have special personnel to monitor them

8. Lifting at heights is generally not carried out in cross with other operations; When cross operation is necessary due to process reasons, reliable preventive measures should be taken to follow the designated route up and down, and comply with various regulations on safe operation

9. In case of strong wind, rainstorm or lightning above level 6, work at heights shall be stopped

10. Special personnel shall be assigned to supervise the construction on the upper part of the plant or the top of the tower and tank with inflammable, explosive and toxic gases

11. When directly climbing tall towers, tanks and chimneys, they must be approved by the safety technology department, and safe and reliable preventive measures must be taken

12. When working on asbestos tiles and tile arrises (light and thin materials), strong safety measures must be taken and solid scaffolds must be set up. It is not allowed to work directly on asbestos tiles or tile arrises

13. When there are pits, wells, ditches, pools, lifting holes or other reserved holes on the operation site, protective railings shall be covered or set to prevent people from entering or falling by mistake

14. Personnel working at heights must pay attention to the up and down, left and right conditions of the operation point. Where there are wires, isolation measures should be taken to prevent touching the wires

15. When climbing with a ladder, the ladder shall not be missing layers, and the top shall be reliably fixed; The foot of the ladder should be wrapped with anti-skid materials, and there should be someone under the ladder to monitor; The gradient of the ladder is 60. Only one person can climb each ladder to work

16. When working up and down, do not hold tools or other objects in your hands. Put the tools in the tool bag, and use a lifting rope to transfer objects. It is strictly forbidden to throw tools or other objects

17. When working at heights, tools, materials and other items should not be placed on the edge of scaffolds or buildings to prevent them from falling and injuring people; At the end of the work, you must count the tools and appliances you bring, and do not leave them on the operation site

18. The on-site supervisors shall not leave their posts casually, and shall resolutely stop illegal and risky operations

common sense of fire control

there are many reasons for the fire of hoisting machinery, but it is mainly caused by the poor installation and daily maintenance of electrical equipment, the electrical equipment exceeds the rated load during operation, and the short circuit, overheating and spark of lines occur. Therefore, the crane cab must be equipped with fire-fighting equipment that meets the regulations, and life-saving safety ropes

I. causes of fire

(I) equipment overheating

the main causes of electrical equipment overheating are:

(1) when a short-circuit fault occurs in a short circuit, the current in the line increases several times as much as that in normal conditions, and the heat generated is in direct proportion to the current. At this time, if the temperature reaches the ignition point of combustibles, it will cause a fire

(2) overload can also cause equipment heating. There are three situations that cause overload: first, the design and selection of lines and equipment are unreasonable, resulting in overheating under rated load; Second, the use is unreasonable, and the crane has been overloaded for a long time, resulting in overheating of lines or equipment; Third, fault operation, such as the lack of one phase of three-phase power supply

(3) poor contact various contactor contacts do not have enough pressure or the contact surface is rough and uneven, which will lead to contact overheating

(4) the resistor with poor heat dissipation is improperly installed or damaged or deformed during use, and the heat accumulation is too high

(II) there are combustibles around the crane

① electrical lines, switchgear, fuses, lighting appliances, motors, electric heating facilities and other electrical equipment on the crane are very prone to fire when they are in contact with or close to combustibles. Lack of oil in the lubrication system can also lead to fire

② cigarette butts and matchsticks thrown by crane drivers and boarding maintenance personnel are easy to cause fire

③ lifting "Shandong graphene engineering and Technology Research Institute was established under the guidance of houshifeng, an expert of the national 'thousand talents program' and a distinguished professor of the national colloidal material engineering and technology research center of Shandong South University. When carrying out maintenance in machinery or plants, roof trusses, skylights and other places, sparks generated by electric welding fell on the crane and caused a fire.

④ smelting, casting and other hot processing molten metal splashed on the crane, which also caused a fire One of the causes of the disaster

II. Suppression of electrical fire

after an electrical fire, electrical equipment may be short circuited due to insulation damage, and electrical lines may also be short circuited due to grounding due to disconnection, making the normally uncharged metal frame and ground live, resulting in electric shock of contact voltage or step voltage. Therefore, when electrical equipment, electrical devices or lines are found to be on fire and nearby, first try to cut off the power supply to prevent the spread of the fire and electric shock during fire extinguishing. If the power cannot be cut off, use fire extinguishing equipment reasonably to extinguish the fire

(I) power off and extinguish the fire

when a fire occurs in the power line and electrical equipment, which causes the combustion of nearby combustibles, the power supply should be cut off immediately, and the following points should be paid attention to:

① after the fire, the power supply should be cut off immediately, and the unit with distribution room can disconnect the main switch (oil switch, etc.); If the disconnector is installed, the disconnector cannot be pulled casually to avoid arc and danger

② in case of fire, the knife switch is affected by moisture or smoke, and its insulation strength is reduced by strengthening the existing technology or developing new technology. When cutting off the power supply, it should be operated with insulation tools

③ when cutting off the electrical equipment started with the magnetic switch, first cut off the power with the button, and then cut off the knife switch. Prevent electric arc injury caused by operation with load

④ if it is necessary to cut the low-voltage line with the ground voltage below 250V, wear insulating boots and gloves, and cut the wire with a power-off scissors. The place to cut off the power supply should be selected appropriately, and the cutting position should be near the support in the direction of the power supply, so as to prevent the conductor from falling on the ground after cutting, resulting in short circuit to ground and electric shock injury

for non-phase wires of three-phase lines, they should be cut at different parts. Pay more attention to this when cutting twisted strands to prevent short circuit

(II) live fire extinguishing

crane electrical fires often occur in the cab, trolley drag cable, control panel, etc. when fighting, use 1211, dry powder or carbon dioxide and other non-conductive fire extinguishing equipment, and maintain a certain distance

the most commonly used and effective fire fighting equipment for electrical fires are 1211 fire extinguishers and dry powder fire extinguishers. The correct use method is:

(1) before using 1211 portable fire extinguishers, first pull out the safety pin, hold the handle tightly with one hand, aim the nozzle at the root of the fire source, shoot left and right to the edge of the fire source, and quickly move forward. During operation, use the fire extinguisher horizontally and upside down

(2) when using the external dry powder fire extinguisher, push the nozzle with one hand, lift the lifting ring with the other hand, hold the lifting handle, turn the fire extinguisher upside down several times, so that the dry powder is loosened in advance, and the nozzle is aimed at the root of the flame to extinguish the fire

after the fire is extinguished, only after all electrical equipment and wires have been cleaned, dried and checked, and all technical indicators meet the requirements, can the electrical equipment be connected to the power supply

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